All the elements placed in front of the camera to be photographed: the settings and props, lighting, costumes and make-up, and figure behavior.
(David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1993)

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"Scenes in NEW YORK, NEW YORK were shot so that 'Jimmy Doyle and Francine Evans are always in the same frame, whether they like it or not. They're stuck together.'" *

[Scorsese, as quoted in Les Keyser, Martin Scorsese]