AFI Catalog of Feature Films
Detailed View of Movie
Name Occurs Before Title Offscreen Credit Print Viewed By AFI
Title: Selma

Production Company: Plan B Entertainment  
  Cloud Eight Films  
  Harpo Films  
  Pathé Productions  
  Redgill Selma Productions  
  Ingenious Media  
Production Text:
Paramount Pictures
and Harpo Films Present
a Plan B, Cloud 8 Films, Harpo Films production
in Association with Ingenious Media
an Ava DuVernay Film
A Plan B Entertainment, Cloud Eight Films and Harpo Films prod for Pathé and Redgill Selma Prods
Brand Name:
Distribution Company: Paramount Pictures (Viacom)

Copyright Claimant Copyright Date Copyright Number
Pathé Productions Limited 18 Nov 2014 PRE000007583

Additional Companies Index: Trevanna Post, Inc.

Release Date: 9 Jan 2015
Premiere Information: Los Angeles opening: 25 Dec 2014; Nationwide opening: 9 Jan 2015
Production Date: late May or early Jun -- 2 or 4 Jul 2014 in Alabama
Duration (in mins): 122
PCA NO: 49496
MPAA Rating: PG-13
Country: United States
Language: English

Physical Properties: Sd: Dolby Digital in selected theatres; Dolby 5.1 Surround
  Widescreen/ratio: 2.35:1
  Lenses: Camera and lenses provided by ARRI Rental

Producer: Christian Colson (Prod)
  Oprah Winfrey (Prod)
  Dede Gardner (Prod)
  Jeremy Kleiner (Prod)
  Brad Pitt (Exec prod)
  Cameron McCracken (Exec prod)
  Diarmuid McKeown (Exec prod)
  Nan Morales (Exec prod)
  Nik Bower (Exec prod)
  Paul Garnes (Exec prod)
  Ava DuVernay (Exec prod)
Director: Ava DuVernay (Dir)
  Paul Garnes (Unit prod mgr)
  Myron Hoffert (1st asst dir)
  David E. Waters (2d asst dir)
  Christy Busby (2d asst dir)
  Cody Williams (2d 2d asst dir)
  Becca Rogers (Addl 2d asst dir)
  Lisandra Soto (Addl 2d asst dir, Alabama unit)
  Peter Musooli (Addl 2d asst dir, Alabama unit)
Writer: Paul Webb (Wrt)
Photography: Bradford Young (Dir of photog)
  Bradford Young (Cam op A cam)
  Stanley Fernandez (1st asst photog A cam)
  Joshua Gilbert (2d asst photog A cam)
  Arthur Jafa (Cam op B cam)
  Andrew Hoehn (1st asst photog B cam)
  Paul E. Woods (2d asst photog B cam)
  Joe Elrom (Digital imaging tech)
  Bess Johnson (Video utilities)
  Katie Smith (Video utilities)
  Zachary Colbert Junquera (Cam loader)
  Christian Epps (Gaffer)
  Carl M. Johnson, Jr. (Best boy elec)
  Ben N. Gaskin (Elec)
  Jordan Francais (Elec)
  Terrance Gaskin (Base camp elec)
  Nate Kendrick (Rigger gaffer)
  Darrell "Su" Charles (Rigging best boy elec)
  Chris Birdsong (Key grip)
  Paige Jarvis (Best boy grip)
  Ken Woodbury (A dolly grip)
  Daniel Parrot (B dolly grip)
  Patrick Fields (Grip)
  Deaglan Quinn (Grip)
  Larry Young (Grip)
  Justin Jones (Rigging key grip)
  Angela Fogle (Rigging best boy grip)
  Atsushi "Jima" Nishijima (Still photog/End title photog)
  Robby Baumgartner (C cam op, Alabama unit)
  Gavin Fernandez (C cam 1st asst cam, Alabama unit)
  Steve Cueva (C cam 2d asst cam, Alabama unit)
  Jamie Pair (C cam 2d asst cam, Alabama unit)
  Michael Howell (Crane op, Alabama unit)
  Parker Kempf (Crane tech, Alabama unit)
  Joe Cuzan (Libra head tech, Alabama unit)
  Matt Evans (Addl loader, Alabama unit)
  Bob Tingle (Video assist, Alabama unit)
  Devin Dixon (Elec, Alabama unit)
  Lorenzo Hall (Elec, Alabama unit)
  Alex Eremin (Grip, Alabama unit)
  Wes Kimbro (Grip, Alabama unit)
Art Direction: Mark Friedberg (Prod des)
  Kim Jennings (Art dir)
  Scott Dougan (Asst art dir)
  Ryan Heck (Asst art dir)
  Brenda Findley (Art dept coord)
  Jason Sweers (Graphic des)
  Chris Hunter (Storyboard artist)
  Erica Hohf (Researcher)
Film Editor: Spencer Averick (Ed)
  Tim Pedegana (Post prod supv)
  Stephanie Gangel (Post prod coord)
  Paul Alderman (1st asst ed)
  Joe Binford, Jr. (1st asst ed)
  Lashawn McGhee (2d asst ed)
  Scott Anderson (VFX ed)
  Mercedes Cooper (Post prod asst)
  Ian Crockett Trevanna Post, Inc. (Post prod accountant)
  Hula Post (Ed systems and support)
Set Decoration: Elizabeth Keenan (Set dec)
  Robin L. Miller (Prop master)
  Erick Garibay (Asst prop master)
  Terrance N. Shelton (Prop asst)
  Matthew Hunter Barcroft (Prop asst)
  Shun R. Jester (Leadman)
  Charles Guanci, Jr. (Armorer)
  Vera Smith (Set dec buyer)
  Maureen McGuire (Set dec buyer)
  Daryl Farrie (Set dresser)
  Sam Carter (Set dresser)
  John Johnson, Jr. (Set dresser)
  Jason Barr (Set dresser)
  Mike Ellison (Set dresser)
  Rob Dickerson, Jr. (Set dresser)
  Marcus Cooley (On set dresser)
  Chris Ferris (Constr coord)
  Stephen Hutton (Constr gen foreperson)
  John Passanante (Scenic charge)
  Sebastion Navarro (Loc foreman)
  Dennis Wood (Scenic foreman)
  Takashi Takemura (Scenic artist)
  Henry Puertas (Scenic artist)
  Brady Holden (Scenic artist)
  Clifton Jerome Jordan (Scenic artist)
  Sonya DeFreese (Scenic artist)
  Myles Adams (Scenic artist)
  Michael Roland (Scenic artist)
  Charles Travis Williams (Propmaker)
  Michael Shannon (Propmaker)
  Richard T. Smith (Propmaker)
  Ricky Perryman (Propmaker)
  Gregory King (Propmaker)
  Nathan Holton (Propmaker)
  John Erickson (Propmaker)
  Shawn Windish (Propmaker)
  Carol Francoso (On set painter)
  Charles Curt Wilson (Set painter)
  Donald Jordan (Set painter)
  Melanie Jacoby (Set painter)
  Lisa Anne Hodge (Set painter)
  Terrance Strickland (Utilities)
  Russell Michniak (Utilities)
  Laine Proctor (Const buyer/Shop coord)
  Swift Moseley (Key greensman)
  Tommy Strickland (Greens foreman)
  Eli Strickland (Greensman)
  Derrick Chambers (On set greensman)
  Charles Tom Wiseman (Prop asst, Alabama unit)
  Timothy Joel Messamore (Prop asst, Alabama unit)
  April Hopkins (Prop asst, Alabama unit)
  Charles Guanci III (Prop asst, Alabama unit)
  Mike Clark (Armorer, Alabama unit)
Costumes: Ruth E. Carter (Cost des)
  Dana Hart (Cost supv)
  Dona Adrian Gibson (Key costumer)
  Derica Washington (Asst to cost des)
  Deborrah Fairweather (Costumer)
  Jim Alan Cook (Costumer)
  Paul A. Simmons, Jr. (Costumer)
  Christopher Opopo (Costumer)
  Omar Simmons (Costumer)
  Amber Hunter (Costumer)
  Ricardo Alvarez (Key background costumer)
  Solomon Fobb (Background costumer)
  Mercedes Cook (Background costumer)
  Toni Dangerfield (Set supv)
  Annie Lee (Background admin)
  Kevin Mayes (Head tailor)
  Derron Cherry (Tailor/Stitcher)
  Barbara Marko (Head fitter)
  Zina Arthur (Cutter)
  Gertrude Moore (Cutter)
  Kaderious Martin (Costumer, Alabama unit)
  Francis McCorkie (Costumer, Alabama unit)
Music: Jason Moran (Mus)
  Morgan Rhodes (Mus supv)
  Teese Gohl (Score prod)
  Tracy McKnight (Score exec prod)
  Jason Moran (Piano & accordion)
  Marvin Sewell (Guitar)
  Joel Iwataki (Score rec and mixed by)
  Angie Teo (Addl rec and mixing)
  Mark Baechle (Programming)
  Kory Kruckenberg (Pro-Tools eng)
  Phil McGowan (Pro-Tools eng)
  Larry Mah (Pro-Tools eng)
  David Sabee (Orch conductor)
  Teese Gohl (Orchestrations)
  Mark Baechle (Orchestrations)
  Robert Elhai (Orchestrations)
  Seattle Music (Orch contractor)
  David Sabee (Orch contractor)
  Robert Puff (Mus preparation)
  Julie Pearce (Mus ed)
  Clint Bennett (Addl mus ed)
  Bastyr, Kenmore, WA (Score rec at)
  TMS Santa Monica, CA (Score mixed at)
Sound: Willie Burton (Sd mixer)
  Aaron 'Cujo' Cooley (Boom op)
  Hank Martin (Sd utility)
  Jorge Del Valle (Sd utility)
  Greg Hedgepath (Supv sd ed)
  Paul Hackner (Sd eff ed)
  William R. Dean (Sd eff ed)
  David A. Whittaker (Dial ed)
  Lauren Hadaway (Dial ed)
  Shane Hayes (ADR mixer)
  Bobbi Banks (ADR ed)
  Antony Zeller (Foley mixer)
  Zane D. Bruce (Foley artist)
  Koyama Andy (Sd re-rec mixer)
  Greg Hedgepath (Supv sd ed)
  Mark Coffey (1st asst sd ed)
  Andy Koyama (Sd re-rec mixer)
  Ezra Dweck (Addl re-rec mixer)
  Dave Whittaker (Supv dial/ADR ed)
  Bobbi Banks (ADR ed)
  Samuel Ejnes (Mix tech)
  F. Hudson Miller (Background ed)
  Charlie Campagna (Sd eff recordist)
  Paul Hackner (Sd eff ed)
  Chris Assels (Sd eff ed)
  William R. Dean (Sd eff ed)
  Lauren Hadaway (Dial ed)
  Chris Navarro (ADR mixer)
  Antony Zeller (Foley mixer)
  Zane D. Bruce (Foley artist)
  Gretchen Thoma (Foley artist)
  Barbara Harris (Voice casting)
  Formosa Group (Sd ed services provided by)
  Audiohead (Re-rec services provided by)
  Bryan Arenas (Dolby sd consultant)
Special Effects: Caius Man (Spec eff coord)
  Donnie Moore (Spec eff gen foreman/Buyer)
  Willie Wallace (Spec eff tech)
  Jake Wallace (Spec eff tech)
  Eric Hull (Spec eff foreman, Alabama unit)
  Matt James (Spec eff tech, Alabama unit)
  Andrew Maddox (Spec eff tech, Alabama unit)
  Randy Moore (Spec eff tech, Alabama unit)
  Pat Rooney (Spec eff tech, Alabama unit)
  Wildfire Studios, NOLA (Visual eff by)
  Dottie Starling (On set/Visual eff supv)
  Susan Macleod (Addl visual eff supv)
  Lauren Ritchie (Visual eff prod)
  Chase Handley (Visual eff prod mgr)
  Jeff Penick (Compositor)
  Dusty Emerson (Compositor)
  Sarah Greishammer (Compositor)
  Nathan Grubbs (Compositor)
  Sean Loughran (Compositor)
  Justin DeLong (Compositor)
  Andrey Drogobetski (Compositor)
  Andrew Stillinger (Compositor)
  DJ Shea (Compositor)
  Mathias Frodin (Compositor)
  Dave Wolgemuth (Compositor)
  Greg-Paul Malone (Flame artist)
  Shade VFX (Visual eff by)
  Harimander Singh Khalsa (Digital eff supv)
  Molly Pabian (Digital eff prod)
  Karina Benesh (Visual eff coord)
  Charles Baden (Compositor)
  Daniel Mellitz (Compositor)
  Josh Shuman (Compositor)
  Kyle Gray (Compositor)
  Shira Mandel (Compositor)
  Tim Fescoe (Compositor)
  Bryan Godwin (Exec visual eff supv)
  David Van Dyke (Visual eff exec prod)
  Industrial Light & Magic A Lucasfilm Ltd. company (Visual eff and anim by)
  Scott Farrar (ILM visual eff supv)
  Grady Cofer (ILM visual eff supv)
  Wayne Billheimer (ILM exec prod)
  TC Harrison (Digital artist)
  Florian Strobl (Digital artist)
  Justin Tatsuo Chan (Visual eff coord)
  Greg Hyman (Visual eff ed)
  Schluter Dewey (Titles by)
  Beth Dewey (Titles prod)
  Bruce Schluter (Titles des)
  Jay Johnson (End titles)
Make Up: Beverly Jo Pryor (Makeup dept head)
  Judy Murdock (Key makeup)
  Kellie Robinson (Makeup artist)
  Bill Myer (Spec eff makeup)
  Vonda Morris (Makeup artist to Mr. Oyelowo)
  Char Coats Crump (Addl makeup)
  Selena Miller (Background makeup)
  Melissa Forney (Hair dept head)
  Pierce Austin (Key hair)
  Andrea C. Brotherton (Hairstylist)
  Louisa Anthony (Hairstylist)
  Theresa Fleming (Hairstylist)
  Zachary Britt (Hairstylist, Alabama unit)
  Dena Gibson (Hairstylist, Alabama unit)
  Pam Hall (Hairstylist, Alabama unit)
  Al Payne (Hairstylist, Alabama unit)
  Nell Bell-Ratter (Hairstylist, Alabama unit)
  Kierston Clark (Makeup artist, Alabama unit)
  Travis Pates (Makup artist, Alabama unit)
  Christopher Whittaker (Makeup artist, Alabama unit)
Production Misc: Aisha Coley (Casting)
  Celador Films in Association with Pathé (Developed by)
  Renetta G. Amador (Scr supv)
  Wesley Hagan (Loc mgr)
  Leif Tilden (Key asst loc mgr)
  Steve Dirkes (Key asst loc mgr)
  Christine Dick (Asst loc mgr)
  Cryselle Stewart (Asst loc mgr)
  Gonzo Rey Del Castillo (Loc asst)
  Tiffany Barnes (Loc asst)
  Ethan Firestone (Loc asst)
  Taylor Hogan (Loc asst)
  Ab Cooper (Loc asst)
  Melanie Manning (Loc scout)
  Erin Fuller (Loc scout)
  Cheryl A. Miller (Prod supv)
  Santell Fancher-Brown (Prod coord)
  Wendy Calloway (Asst prod coord)
  Elisabeth Kiernan Averick (Prod secy)
  Jade Holmes (Travel coord)
  Robyn Owen (Casting assoc)
  M'Saada Nia (Casting asst)
  Cynthia Stillwell (Local and extras casting assoc)
  Chad Darnell (Local and extras casting assoc)
  Haviland Stillwell (Extras casting assoc)
  Juliana Finch (Extras casting asst)
  Daniel Jarvie (Extras casting asst)
  Monica Sheldon (Unit pub)
  Mary Jasionowski (Prod accountant)
  Cindy Anderson (1st asst accountant)
  Katherine Silva (2d asst accountant)
  Carissa O'Hara (Payroll accountant)
  Tamara Coleman (Accounting clerk)
  Hayley Sands (Payroll accounting clerk)
  Tilane Jones (Coord for Ms. DuVernay)
  Willie Willingham (Asst to Ms. Winfrey)
  Tiffany Lighty (Asst to Ms. Winfrey)
  Julia Suk (Asst to Mr. Garnes)
  Christina Oh (Asst to Ms. Gardner)
  Kevin Shih (Asst to Mr. Kleiner)
  Michelle Johnson (Asst to Ms. Morales)
  Melynie Dangerfield (Asst to Mr. Oyelowo)
  Liz Himelstein (Dialect coach)
  Elisa Carlton (Dialect coach)
  Amy Stroller (Dialect coach)
  Nakeeta Ingram (Prod asst)
  Mario Jackson (Prod asst)
  Anthony T. Harris II (Prod asst)
  Tia Herrod (Prod asst)
  Julia Heymans (Prod asst)
  Justin Jordan (Prod asst)
  Robert Nagy (Prod asst)
  Jessie Pellegrino (Prod asst)
  Robert Shelton (Prod asst)
  Icy Chevelle White (Prod asst)
  Josielyn "Josie" Works (Prod asst)
  Aric Sabin (Set prod asst)
  Corey Burks (Set prod asst)
  Nicole Hobday (Set prod asst)
  Lanaria Johnson (Set prod asst)
  Joe McDonough (Set prod asst)
  Dennis Carter (Transportation coord)
  Ricky A. Cox (Transportation capt)
  Josh McPherson (Transportation co-capt)
  Andy Strauss (Picture car coord)
  Alana Hyles (DOT compliance admin)
  Marcus Corley (Driver)
  Geoffrey Christopher (Driver)
  Steve DePaola (Driver)
  Jim Kirk (Driver)
  Chris White (Driver)
  Tommy Trippe (Driver)
  Howard Bixby (Driver)
  Edward Cavett (Driver)
  Darnell Fuqua (Driver)
  Gary Montgomery (Driver)
  Stevie Harris (Driver)
  Stewart Ussery (Driver)
  Jennifer Blackman (Driver)
  Trish Sammons (Driver)
  Michael Lewis (Driver)
  Richard Lupo (Driver)
  Billy Gillespie (Driver)
  Charlie Rogers (Driver)
  Richard Edwards (Driver)
  James Freeman (Driver)
  Joel Kyle (Driver)
  John Warren Hodge III (Driver)
  Norman Morton (Driver)
  James Burnett (Driver)
  James Frick (Driver)
  Brian Grooms (Driver)
  Vitaliy Cheban (Driver)
  Zach Stringer (Driver)
  Clifton McSwain (Driver)
  Willie Banks (Driver)
  Kevin Rowland (Driver)
  Emmett Capers (Set medic)
  Celena Shackleford Cater (Teacher/Welfare worker)
  Javan Adams (Key craft service)
  Glenn Sharpe (Asst craft service)
  Abraham Montemayor (Addl craft service)
  Cilantrouno (Catering)
  Tarana Burke (Prod consultant, Alabama unit)
  Phil Banks (Set prod asst, Alabama unit)
  Lauren Cummings (Set prod asst, Alabama unit)
  Marisol Garbutt (Set prod asst, Alabama unit)
  Cierra Glaude (Set prod asst, Alabama unit)
  Sarah Gorczyk (Set prod asst, Alabama unit)
  Aidah Muhammad (Set prod asst, Alabama unit)
  Leigh Rusevlyan (Set prod asst, Alabama unit)
  Justice Singleton (Set prod asst, Alabama unit)
  Terence Steele (Set prod asst, Alabama unit)
  Tiffany Waxler (Set prod asst, Alabama unit)
  Renee Williams (Extras casting asst, Alabama unit)
  Sherri Stanley (Transportation driver, Alabama unit)
  Vinnie Thrift (Transportation driver, Alabama unit)
  Alfredo Corona (Transportation driver, Alabama unit)
  Jorge Diaz (Catering asst, Alabama unit)
  Fernando Fregoso (Catering asst, Alabama unit)
  Jose Henriquez (Catering asst, Alabama unit)
  Antwon Moore (Catering asst, Alabama unit)
  Luis Montenegro (Catering asst, Alabama unit)
  Windsor Jones (Catering asst, Alabama unit)
  Travis Mulford (Craft services, Alabama unit)
  Jim Recznick (Craft services, Alabama unit)
  Jaan Childs (Craft services, Alabama unit)
  Stephen Baughman (Hydration unit, Alabama unit)
  Mark Terry (Hydration unit, Alabama unit)
  Josh Cane (Hydration unit, Alabama unit)
  Allen Dailey (Hydration unit, Alabama unit)
  Donald Weaver (Set medic, Alabama unit)
  Scott Bishop (Set medic, Alabama unit)
  Care Ambulance Service (Set medic, Alabama unit)
  Pierre Du Plessis (For Pathe Productions)
  Fiona McGuire (For Pathe Productions)
  Lee Bye (For Pathe Productions)
  James Clarke (For Pathe Productions)
  Colleen Woodcock (For Pathe Productions)
  Gursharn Khaira (For Pathe Productions)
  Jack Myles (For Pathe Productions)
  Sophie Glover (For Pathe Productions)
  Helene Brown (For Pathe Productions)
  Lloyd Vanson (For Pathe Productions)
  Len Rowles (For Pathe Productions)
  John McGrory (For Pathe Productions)
  Wai-Hun Tang (For Pathe Productions)
  Eliot Martin Dominguez (For Pathe Productions)
  Chris Besseling (For Pathe Productions)
  Valeria Bullo (For Pathe Productions)
  Lisa Towey (For Pathe Productions)
  Evelyn Rooney (For Pathe Productions)
  Michael Shyjka (For Ingenious Media)
  Stephen Fuss (For Ingenious Media)
  Ted Cawrey (For Ingenious Media)
  Lesley Wise (For Ingenious Media)
  Farzana Ali (For Ingenious Media)
  Daisy Tam (For Ingenious Media)
  Gaia Elkington (Exec asst to Christian Colson, For Cloud Eight)
  James Kay Sheridans (Legal services, For Cloud Eight)
  John Graydon Saffrey Champness (Accounting services, For Cloud Eight)
  Kesriel Humphries-Allen (Management accountant, For Cloud Eight)
  Ivana MacKinnon (Head of development, For Cloud Eight)
  Derek Townsend (Insurance services, For Cloud Eight)
  Irwin M. Rappaport, P. C. (Prod legal services)
  Neil O. Mevellec (Prod legal services)
  Jay Floyd Now Clear This! (Clearance admin services)
  Kenn Rabin (Archive prod)
  Act One Script Clearance (Script research)
  Film Finances, Inc. (Competion guarantor)
  Dave Bennett (Film Finances, Inc., Completion guarantor)
  Kimberly Williams (Film Finances, Inc., Completion guarantor)
  Marsha L. Swinton (Film Finances representative)
  Freeway Cam B. V. (World revenues collected and distributed by)
  Muriel Sauzay (International sales-Pathe International)
  Mayalen De Croisoeuil (International sales-Pathe International)
  Agathe Théodore (International sales-Pathe International)
Stand In: Stephen Pope (Stunt coord)
  Isaac Hughs (Stunts)
  Shellita Boxie (Stunts)
  Jwaundace Candece (Stunts)
  Raion Hill (Stunts)
  Tyrone Claybrook, Jr. (Stunts)
  Raven Danielle (Stunts)
  Tim McAdams (Stunts)
  Tomar Boyd (Stunts)
  Jeremy Sample (Stunts)
  Tye Claybrook (Stunts)
  Brent Bernhard (Stunts)
  Courtney Julien (Stunts)
  Kevin Morgan (Stunts)
  Keith Meriweather (Stunts)
  Josh Lakatos (Stunts)
  Greg Sproles (Stunts)
  Destiny Parker (Stunts)
  Dan Norris (Stunts)
  Karen Battiste (Stunts)
  Cody Robinson (Stunts)
  Donny Carrington (Stunts)
  Nick Hayner (Stunts)
  Nicoye Banks (Stunts)
  Scott Loeser (Stunts)
  Mark Hicks (Stunts)
  Christopher Tardieu (Stunts)
  Keith Davis (Stunts)
  John Herndon (Stunts)
  Tristan Boswell (Stunts)
  Johnny Cooper (Stunts)
  Damita Howard (Stunts)
  Hunter Baxley (Stunts)
  Jazzy Ellis (Stunts)
  Raven Danielle Baker (Stunts)
  Guss Williams (Stunts)
  Artie Malesci (Stunts)
  Ryan Robertson (Stunts)
  Tommy Turvey, Sr. (Stunts)
  Scheryl Brown (Stunts)
  Floyd Johns (Stunts)
  Tommy Turvey, Jr. (Horse wrangler)
  Dave Patton (Stunt Sheriff Clark horseman)
  Todd Warren (Stunt driver cam)
Color Personnel: EFILM (Digital Intermediate provided by)
  Mitch Paulson (Supv digital colorist)
  Eileen Godoy (Digital Intermediate prod)
  Michael Bryant (Digital Intermediate asst prod)
  Amy Pawlowski (Digital Intermediate ed)
  Jake King (Digital Intermediate color asst)
  Brian Han (Visual eff prod)
  Matthew Tomlinson (Imaging science)
  Patrick Clancey (Digital opticals ed)
  EC3 (Digital dailies provided by)
  Ed Twiford (Dailies colorist)
  Nicholas Winkelmann (Dailies op)
  Stephen Regnier (Digital workflow tech)
  Scott Salamon (Dailies prod)
  Terry Morrison (Dailies eng)
  Billy Gabor (Senior colorist)
  DeLuxe® ([Col by])

Music Text:
Song Text: "One Morning Soon," Traditional, performed by Joyce Collins & Johnita Collins, courtesy of Tompkins Square, LLC; "House Of The Rising Sun," written and performed by Duane Eddy, courtesy of Duane Eddy Productions; "Easy Street," written by Allan Rankin Jones, performed by Sarah Vaughan, courtesy of Parlophone Records Ltd, by arrangement with Warner Music Group Film & TV Licensing; "Walk With Me," written by Ralph Bass, performed by Martha Bass, courtesy of Geffen Records, under license from Universal Music Enterprises; "Precious Lord Take My Hand," written by Reverend Thomas A. Dorsey, performed by Ledisi, Ledisi Young appears courtesy of Verve Music Group; "Why (Am I Treated So Bad)," written by Roebuck Staples, performed by The Staples Singers, courtesy of Columbia Records, by arrangement with Sony Music Licensing; "Ole Man Trouble," written & performed by Otis Redding, courtesy of Atlantic Recording Corp., by arrangement with Warner Music Group Film & TV Licensing; "Masters of War," written by Bob Dylan, performed by Odetta, courtesy of RCA Records, by arrangement with Sony Music Licensing; "Keep On Pushing," written by Curtis Mayfield, performed by The Impressions, under license from Universal Music Enterprises; "Time Brings About A Change," written by Jimmy Outler, performed by The Soul Stirrers, courtesy of ABKCO Music & Records, Inc.; "I Got The New World In My View," performed by Sister Gertrude Morgan, courtesy of Big Deal Music on behalf of Preservation Hall; "Don't You Want My Lovin'," written by Kenneth Gamble & Leon Huff, performed by The Orlons, courtesy of ABKCO Music & Records, Inc.; "You Ain't Got But One Life To Live," Traditional, performed by Seabell Kennedy; "Day-O," written by William Attaway & Irving Burgie; "Contemporary Focus," written & performed by McCoy Tyner, courtesy of The Verve Music Group, under license from Universal Music Enterprises; "Yesterday Was Hard On All Of Us," written by Finian Greenall, Guy Whittaker & Tim Thornton, performed by Fink, courtesy of Ninja Tune; "Bamboo Flute Blues," written & performed by Yusef Lateef, courtesy of The Verve Music Group, under license from Universal Music Enterprises; "Glory," written by John Stephens, Lonnie Lynn, Che Smith, performed by Common & John Legend, Common appears courtesy of Artium Records/Def Jam Recordings, under license from Universal Music Enterprises, John Legend appears courtesy of Getting Out Our Dreams/Columbia Records, a division of Sony Music Entertainment, by arrangement with Sony Music Licensing; "This Little Light Of Mine/ Freedom Now Chant/ Come By Here (Medley)," Traditional, performed by workers in Selma, courtesy of Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.
Source Text:
Music Composer: William Attaway
  Ralph Bass
  Irving Burgie
  Reverend Thomas A. Dorsey
  Bob Dylan
  Duane Eddy
  Kenneth Gamble
  Finian Greenall
  Leon Huff
  Allan Rankin Jones
  Yusef Lateef
  Lonnie Lynn
  Curtis Mayfield
  Jimmy Outler
  Otis Redding
  Che Smith
  Roebuck Staples
  John Stephens
  Tim Thornton
  McCoy Tyner
  Guy Whittaker
Sung By: Joyce Collins
  Johnita Collins
  Duane Eddy
  Sarah Vaughan
  Martha Bass
  Reverend Thomas A. Dorsey
  The Staples Singers
  Otis Redding
  The Impressions
  The Soul Stirrers
  Sister Gertrude Morgan
  The Orlons
  Seabell Kennedy
  McCoy Tyner
  Yusef Lateef
  John Legend

Cast:   David Oyelowo (Martin Luther King Jr.)  
    Tom Wilkinson (President Lyndon B. Johnson)  
    Carmen Ejogo (Coretta Scott King)  
    André Holland (Andrew Young)  
    Giovanni Ribisi (Lee [C.] White)  
    Lorraine Toussaint (Amelia Boynton)  
    Stephan James (John Lewis)  
    Wendell Pierce (Rev. Hosea Williams)  
    Common (James Bevel)  
    Alessandro Nivola (John Doar)  
    Lakeith Lee Stanfield (Jimmie Lee Jackson)  
    Cuba Gooding, Jr. (Fred Gray)  
    Dylan Baker (J. Edgar Hoover)  
  with Tim Roth (Gov. George Wallace)  
  and Oprah Winfrey (Annie Lee Cooper) as Annie Lee Cooper
    Colman Domingo ([Reverend] Ralph Abernathy)  
    Ruben Santiago-Hudson (Bayard Rustin)  
    Stephen Root (Col. Al Lingo)  
    Tessa Thompson (Diane Nash)  
    Omar Dorsey (James Orange)  
    Henry G. Sanders (Cager Lee)  
    Jeremy Strong (James Reeb)  
    Trai Byers (James Forman)  
    Corey Reynolds (CT Vivian)  
    Niecy Nash (Richie Jean Jackson)  
    Jim France (Gunnar Jahn)  
    Trinity Simone (Girl # 1)  
    Mikeria Howard (Girl # 2)  
    Jordan Rice (Girl # 3)  
    Ebony Billups (Girl # 4)  
    Nadej Bailey (Girl # 5)  
    Elijah Oliver (Boy # 1)  
    Clay Chappell (Registrar)  
    Haviland Stillwell (President's secretary)  
    David Morizot (Assaulting white man)  
    David Dwyer (Chief Wilson Baker)  
    E. Roger Mitchell (Frederick Reese)  
    Ledisi Young (Mahalia Jackson)  
    Kent Faulcon (Sullivan Jackson)  
    Stormy Merriwether (Jackson's daughter)  
    Corey Reynolds (Rev. C. T. Vivian)  
    John Lavelle (Roy Reed)  
    Charity Jordan (Viola Lee Jackson)  
    Stan Houston (Sheriff Jim Clark)  
    Greg Chandler Maness (Aide)  
    Nigél Thatch (Malcolm X)  
    Michael Papajohn (Major Cloud)  
    Brian Kurlander (Voice on recorder)  
    Elizabeth Diane Wells (Marie Reeb)  
    Tara Ochs (Viola Luizzo)  
    David Marshall Silverman (Anthony Luizzo)  
    Charles Saunders (Gerry)  
    Dexter Tillis (Angry marcher)  
    Michael Shikany (Archbishop Iakovos)  
    Brandon O`Dell (Reeb companion)  
    Dane Davenport (Klansman # 1)  
    Brandon Carrol (Klansman # 2)  
    Mark Cabus (State attorney)  
    Christine Horne (Female marcher)  
    Dan Triandiflou (ABC journalist)  
    Jody Thompson (White marcher)  
    Kenny Cooper (Black marcher)  
    Montrel Miller (Young marcher)  
    Charles Black (Elder marcher)  
    Zipporah Carter (Self defense trainee)  
    Willean Lacy (Self defense trainee)  
    Dawn Young (Volunteer doctor)  

Summary: On December 10, 1964, civil rights activist Martin Luther King, Jr. accepts the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo, Norway. Around the same time, a black woman named Annie Lee Cooper attempts to register to vote in Selma, Alabama, but a white clerk denies her application when she cannot name all sixty-seven Alabama county court judges. Martin Luther King, Jr. travels to Washington, D.C., to meet with President Lyndon B. Johnson, who claims that the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is the accomplishment of his life. President Johnson asks King to continue leading the Civil Rights Movement, because he does not want a militant taking over. King agrees if Johnson is willing to create Federal legislation granting African Americans the unencumbered right to vote. Johnson, who claims his new agenda is a “war on poverty,” says the South needs more time to desegregate before they can move forward with full voting rights for black citizens. King reminds Johnson of the four African American girls who were killed in a racially motivated church bombing in 1963, and says African American victims will never receive justice because, without the right to vote, they cannot serve on juries and have no influence on elected officials. Johnson maintains that he must set the voting agenda aside. Tackling the issue on his own, King travels to Selma with colleagues from the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), including Reverend Ralph Abernathy, Andrew Young, James Orange, James Bevel, and Diane Nash. At a hotel, a white man approaches King to shake his hand but punches him instead. President Johnson learns of the assault in the newspaper. J. Edgar Hoover, director of the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI), tells Johnson that King is a degenerate and suggests shutting him down. At his home in Atlanta, Georgia, King tells his wife, Coretta, he plans to return to Selma the next day. He says the local sheriff, Jim Clark, has a bad reputation and will not go down without a fight. When he jokes that he could die, Coretta reprimands her husband for making light of the situation. In Selma, the SCLC sets up a headquarters at the home of Richie Jean Jackson. Reverend Hosea Williams informs King that members of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) are in town and upset with the SCLC for encroaching on their territory. The next day, King delivers a speech to a crowd of 700 churchgoers, citing voting rights in Selma as his next objective. He laments that fifty percent of Selma’s population is African American, but of those, only two percent can vote. The crowd applauds King’s speech and chants, “Give us the vote.” Later, John Lewis and James Forman, two SNCC representatives, confer with King and the SCLC. The young men argue that they have been handling voter registration in Selma for two years and do not want drama. King’s colleagues accuse them of failing, but King orders the men to stop arguing. He tells the students that his organization works by negotiating, demonstrating and resisting, and gaining publicity to raise the white man’s consciousness. King says the only way to get President Johnson’s attention is to be on the cover of the newspaper every day, and that requires drama. Thus, he has come to Selma because Sheriff Jim Clark will deliver the necessary drama to promote their cause. Later, the SNCC joins the SCLC on a march to the Selma Courthouse. King asks for access to the courthouse for voter registration, but police guards beat the activists away with nightsticks. When Annie Lee Cooper retaliates by punching a policeman, she is thrown to the ground and taken into custody with others. In response to the demonstration, Alabama Governor George Wallace gives a speech in favor of segregation. Spending the night in jail, King wonders what prize he is seeking. He tells Rev. Abernathy that once African Americans achieve equal rights, they will still lack the education and money to utilize them. Abernathy assures him they will build the path “rock by rock.” Coretta King travels to Selma to see Malcolm X, a controversial civil rights activist who has publicly denounced King’s nonviolent doctrine and accused him of colluding with white men. However, Malcolm X says he has come to help King’s cause by provoking authorities himself, allowing King to appear as the lesser of two evils. Coretta says she does not want to see her husband’s work undone. She visits King in jail and tells him about Malcolm X’s proposal. King reprimands her for meeting with his rival and accuses her of being enamored with him. However, he quickly apologizes, claiming he is tired. Governor George Wallace gets word that Malcolm X is in town and decides Sheriff Jim Clark needs backup. King goes to California for a fundraiser just as Alabama state troopers arrive in Selma. The troopers crack down on protestors on the streets of Selma, delivering brutal beatings and shooting dead Richie Jean Jackson’s son, Jimmie Lee. Upon his return, King greets Jimmie’s grieving grandfather, Cager Lee. At church, King announces that the state troopers were acting under Wallace’s orders, but every white authority figure who turned a blind eye is responsible. He notes that Malcolm X was shot and killed the day before, and says the news reminded him of President John F. Kennedy’s assassination. Preparing for another meeting with President Johnson, King meets with SCLC leaders, who discuss legislation points for a voting rights law. They stress the importance of ending unfair practices such as poll taxes and voter vouchers. At the White House, King tells Johnson he plans to march from Selma to Montgomery. Johnson warns him it is too dangerous and his adviser, Lee C. White, tells King about threats coming from Lowndes County, Alabama. White suggests King stay off of the front lines. Later, Johnson asks White to call in J. Edgar Hoover. In Atlanta, Coretta listens to death threats left on the Kings’ answering machine. She tells her husband she has gotten used to a lot, but never the proximity of death. She asks if he loves her, and he tells her he does. Then she asks if he loves any of his mistresses? King pauses before saying no. On March 7, 1965, the march from Selma to Montgomery begins with over 500 people in attendance. Protestors carry bedrolls and lunch sacks as they cross the Edmund Pettus Bridge. On the other side, a line of state troopers awaits. The troopers order the crowd to disperse in two minutes. When demonstrators refuse, authorities, some on horseback, attack the protestors with nightsticks, tear gas, and whips. Footage of the mayhem is televised. King, who was not present for the first day of the march, calls for anyone who believes in justice, and clergymen of all races, to join them in the next march. New recruits, many of them white, pour into town. Two days later, King leads a larger group, one-third of which is white, across the bridge, where they are stopped again. Facing a line of troopers, King kneels and prays, then turns around and leads the protestors back in silence. That night, James Reeb, a white clergyman from Boston, Massachusetts, is beaten and killed for taking part in the march. King worries about losing more lives. Soon after, Coretta joins him at an Alabama courthouse, where Hosea Williams, John Lewis, and SCLC member Amelia Boynton sue Governor Wallace for the right to march. An Alabama judge grants them permission for a five-day march. Afterward, Wallace meets President Johnson, who urges the governor to relent and give African Americans the vote. Soon after, Johnson announces that he will send a law to Congress, designed to eliminate illegal barriers to voting. Despite warnings from Assistant Attorney General for Civil Rights John Doar, King joins the protestors in the next march. King and Coretta walk on the front lines, linking arms and singing with fellow protestors. On March 25, 1965, after five days of marching across Alabama, camping in tents overnight, the protestors gather outside the State Capitol in Montgomery. There, King delivers a triumphant speech. Following the march: Cager Lee finally registers to vote at age 84; Andrew Young becomes an ambassador to the United Nations; John Lewis goes on to become a Georgia Congressman; George Wallace unsuccessfully runs for president four times, and is paralyzed in a 1972 assassination attempt; Sheriff Jim Clark is not re-elected; Viola Liuzzo, a white protestor, is killed by Ku Klux Klansmen; Coretta Scott King starts the King Center and establishes Martin Luther King Day as a national holiday; President Johnson signs the Voting Rights Act of 1965; and King continues to lead the Civil Rights Movement until his murder in 1968.  

Genre: Drama
Sub-Genre: Historical
Subject Major: African Americans
  Civil rights
  Martin Luther King, Jr.
  Protest marches
Subject Minor: Assassination
  Lyndon Baines Johnson
  Malcolm X
  Nobel Prize
  Police brutality
  Student activism
  United States. National Guard
  Washington (D.C.)

Note: End credits include the following acknowledgments: "This project was completed with assistance from the Georgia Film, Music & Digital Entertainment Office, a division of the Georgia Department of Economic Development," and, "Filmed on location in Alabama."
       End credits also cite the following: "Archival materials courtesy of: NBCUniversal Archives; T3 Media; UCLA Film & Television Archive; The Associated Press; The New York Times, March 8, 1965 © 1965 The New York Times. Used under license Getty Images; White House Historical Association (White House Collection); Superstock; Edvard Munch © 2014 The Munch Museum/The Munch-Ellingsen Group/Artists Rights Society (ARS); New York Corbis Jacob Lawrence © 2014 The Jacob and Gwedolyn Lawrence Foundation, Seattle/Artists Rights Society (ARS); New York Alabama Historical Commission, Montgomery, Alabama; Alabama State University for use of 1960 GMC Bus." End credits also note, "Jason Moran appears courtesy of Blue Note Records."
       The following receive "Thanks to: Mayor Robert Evans (Selma, AL), City of Selma, AL, City of Montgomery, AL, City of Covington, AL, City of Marietta, AL, City of Conyers, GA, Georgia Film Commission, Alabama Film Office, Atlanta Police Department, Janssen Robinson, Mary-Anne Rose, Visionary Art Gallery, Orange Hill Art Gallery, Souls Grown Deep Foundation, Martin Luther King Jr. High School, Gene Albritton, Kennesaw Mountain High School Art Department, Luia Aristondo, Jay Bailey, Danielle Faye, John Grybowski, Jeremiah Hawkins, Jeremy Hunt, Kara A. Molitor, Katherine Pummell."
       End credits also state: "The Director Wishes to Thank: Ambassador Andrew Young, Congressman John Lewis, Reverend C. T. Vivian, Amelia Boynton Robinson, Murray and Darlene Maye, Tera and Jina DuVernay, Nicholas and Kristopher Maye, Jeanne Francis and Aminata Sall, Calvin and Alberta Lynch, Robin Swicord and Nick Kazan, Nina Shaw and Gordon Bobb, Rand Holston and Ben Weiss, George Evans, Beverly Wood, Gary May, Marjorie Goodwin Garnes, Victoria and Stephen Oyelowo."
       The actor who plays "Jimmie Lee Jackson" is credited as "Lakeith Lee Stanfield" in opening credits and "Lakeith Stanfield" in end credits.
       As noted in various contemporary sources, including articles in the 3 Dec 2014 NYT and the 19 Dec 2014 LAT, Selma was the first theatrically-released feature film in which Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., was a main character. However, attempts at making a picture about the civil rights leader had been in the works for many years, including Selma, and several unproduced films such as an unnamed Steven Spielberg biographical picture, and Paul Greengrass’s Memphis. According to a 16 Dec 2014 HR article, the properties remained in limbo because King’s offspring were conflicted about how to manage their father’s estate. Although Martin Luther King, Jr.’s speeches and life rights are owned by the estate, they were licensed to Dreamworks and Warner Bros. in 2009 for the Spielberg production, which at one point had Oliver Stone attached as director. The King heirs launched several copyright infringement lawsuits against news outlets and documentary filmmakers including CBS television, USA Today, the PBS series Eyes on the Prize (1987), and actor-political activist Harry Belafonte, and also filed suits against each other. King’s family contracted with Intellectual Properties Management to represent the rights to his speeches. According to HR, words and images on the Martin Luther King, Jr., monument in Washington, DC, were licensed for $761,160 with an additional “$71,000 management fee” for the siblings. In 2006, King’s papers sold at auction for $32 million, and some sources estimated that the heirs had earned $50 million by 2014. Realizing the potential complications, Selma filmmakers did not attempt to make a deal with the estate or its representatives. The screenplay was written to approximate King’s speeches as closely as possible, even “just altering a word or two,” without violating the family’s copyright claims. Selma was not endorsed by the King family, but HR pointed out that none of the children formally denounced the picture, either.
       Despite Dreamworks’ and Warner Bros.’ success in licensing rights to King’s speeches and life story, Paul Webb’s screenplay for Selma was optioned by actor-producer Brad Pitt’s company, Plan B, funded by Pathé Productions, and championed by British actor David Oyelowo, who first read the script in 2007 and devoutly believed that God wanted him to play the role of “Martin Luther King, Jr.” The first directors involved with the project were: Michael Mann, with whom director Ava DuVernay worked as a publicist; Stephen Frears; Paul Haggis; Spike Lee; and, later, Lee Daniels. As stated in a 31 Oct 2014 LAT article and the 3 Dec 2014 NYT, Daniels worked for years developing the film, but when he left to make The Butler (2013, see entry), it seemed that the project was not going to be produced, after all. However, Oyelowo refused to give up, and sent a letter to Pathé Productions, urging them to hire DuVernay. The actor had worked with DuVernay on her second fictional feature film, Middle of Nowhere (2012, see entry), which had a budget of $200,000 and earned her the Best Director award at the Sundance Film Festival, making DuVernay the first African American woman to receive this honor.
       Before becoming a director, DuVernay established her own publicity agency at age twenty-seven, and gained exposure to on-set filmmaking. She told the 3 Dec 2014 NYT that working on Michael Mann’s Collateral (2004, see entry) inspired her to transition from publicity to production, and she began making documentaries. Her first narrative feature film, I Will Follow (2010, see entry), was released through her own distribution company. Profits from I Will Follow funded Middle of Nowhere.
       While establishing herself as a director, DuVernay continued to work as a publicist and crossed paths with the Selma project in Jan 2010, when controversy arose over an NYDN article that erroneously claimed Paul Webb’s script included a flirtatious scene between King and a prostitute. To address the controversy, DuVernay was hired as a liaison between the Selma filmmakers and the King family. Soon after, director Lee Daniels left the project, and Oyelowo had DuVernay hired to direct the $200,000 production. A 26 Nov 2014 WSJ article noted that producer Oprah Winfrey joined the project around that time and brought along immense financing power. A 31 Jan 2014 HR news item confirmed her role as a producer. Winfrey’s influence transformed Selma from a low-budget, independent feature into a $20 million major studio production.
       Although she is not credited onscreen as a writer, various sources stated that DuVernay reworked the script, emphasizing King and the female characters over President Lyndon B. Johnson’s (LBJ) point of view. In the 26 Nov 2014 WSJ article, Oyelowo stated that the early version of the screenplay failed to portray “how much LBJ was cajoled by the Selma campaign.”
       According to the 31 Oct 2014 LAT, a large part of principal photography took place at the Alabama locations where the film’s three main historical events occurred in 1965: “Bloody Sunday,” “Turnaround Tuesday,” and the five-day march from Selma to Montgomery, which ultimately led to the federal approval of the Voting Rights Act. According to a 12 Jun 2014 HR news item that announced the casting of Giovanni Ribisi, principal photography was already underway. Sources varied on reports of the end date, with 2 Jul and 4 Jul 2014 being cited. A 4 Dec 2014 LAT article stated that the shoot lasted thirty-two days, indicating a start date in late-May, or early-Jun 2014. A 4 Dec 2014 LAT interview with director of photography Bradford Young stated that the film was in its final days of post-production at that time.
       On 31 Oct 2014, Var announced that Selma was set to premiere “30 minutes of footage from the film” at AFI FEST, on 11 Nov 2014, at the Egyptian Theatre. Several weeks later, however, a 10 Nov 2014 HR news item announced the film would make its world premiere at AFI FEST in its entirety, followed by a conversation with DuVernay, Winfrey, producers Dede Gardner and Jeremy Kleiner, and Oyelowo. According to a 12 Nov 2014 Var article, the switch was revealed “in a Twitter exchange” between DuVernay and Winfrey.
       As noted in a 26 Dec 2014 HR article, Joseph A. Califano, Jr., President Lyndon B. Johnson’s chief of domestic affairs, took issue with the film’s portrayal of LBJ, claiming he was depicted as a figure who represented “the obstacles blacks faced in getting civil rights laws passed.” Three days later, the 29 Dec 2014 HR published DuVernay’s response via Twitter, which declared Califano’s comments to be offensive. She encouraged viewers to come to their own conclusions, and “interrogate history.”
       Selma was nominated for four Golden Globe Awards, including Best Director - Motion Picture, Best Actor in a Motion Picture - Drama (David Oyelowo), Best Original Song - Motion Picture (John Legend and Common, for “Glory”). The film was honored as one of AFI’s Movies of the Year. 

Note Credits: Personal note credit: Michael Mann
  Personal note credit: Stephen Frears
  Personal note credit: Paul Haggis
  Personal note credit: Spike Lee
  Personal note credit: Lee Daniels
  Geographic location: Selma Alabama United States
  Geographic location: Montgomery Alabama United States
  Geographic location: Atlanta Georgia United States

Source   Date   Page
Hollywood Reporter   31 Jan 2014.   
Hollywood Reporter   12 Jun 2014.   
Hollywood Reporter   10 Nov 2014.   
Hollywood Reporter   12 Nov 2014.   
Hollywood Reporter   16 Dec 2014.   
Hollywood Reporter   26 Dec 2014.   
Hollywood Reporter   29 Dec 2014.   
Los Angeles Times   31 Oct 2014.   
Los Angeles Times   4 Dec 2014.   
Los Angeles Times   4 Dec 2014   Section S, p. 32.
Los Angeles Times   19 Dec 2014.   
Los Angeles Times   24 Dec 2014.   
New York Times   3 Dec 2014.   
New York Times   24 Dec 2014.   
Variety   31 Oct 2014.   
Variety   12 Nov 2014.   
Wall Street Journal   26 Nov 2014.   

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